Human papillomavirus research on the prevention, diagnosis, and prognosis of cervical cancer in Taiwan
Angel Chao, Huei-Jean Huang, Chyong-Huey Lai PMID:22913856
Cervical cancer is third in incidence and fourth in mortality among cancers of women worldwide. Epidemiological studies have shown that human papillomavirus (HPV) is necessary, if not sufficient, to cause nearly 100% of cervical cancers. HPV testing is useful in primary screening for cervical neoplasms. The value of HPV detection or genotyping is potentially useful in triage of borderline or low-grade abnormal cervical cytology, follow-up after treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, assessment of prognosis and treatment planning for invasive cervical cancer. Studies from Chang Gung Memorial Hospital have defined the genotype distribution of cervical cancer in Taiwan and confirmed the Independent prognostic value of the HPV genotype in cervical cancer. The cost-effectiveness of using HPV testing in prevention and management of cervical neoplasms depends on the medical and public
health infrastructure of the individual country. The population-based HPV prevalence and genotype distribution as well as longitudinal follow-up studies have established strong support for incorporating HPV testing with cervical cytology and for future comparisons of HPV epidemiology before and after implementation of HPV prophylactic vaccines in Taiwan. Future directions in HPV research are discussed.
Background: Recently the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) fusion gene with transforming activity was identified in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In addition, NSCLC patients with the EML4-ALK fusion gene had a dramatic response and longer progression free survival after ALK inhibitor treatment than those without this fusion gene. However, the incidence and clinical and molecular characteristics of the EML4-ALK fusion gene in NSCLC patients of Taiwan are still unclear.
Methods: Sixty-four fresh frozen tumor specimens were obtained from the tissue bank of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital for RNA extraction and EML4-ALK fusion gene detection. Paraffin sections of lung tumors from all of these patients were available and were analyzed for ALK protein expression by immunohistochemical (IHC) study. The results were correlated with clinical and molecular biomarkers.
Results: Three of the 64 tumors (4.7%) had the EML4-ALK fusion gene. Two were adenocarcinomas, and one was adenosquamous carcinoma. Twenty patients with non-squamous cell carcinomas had epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, so the EML4-ALK fusion gene was found in 14.3% of EGFR wild type non-squamous cell carcinomas. Two tumors were variant 3 (3a+3b with 3b predominant) and had strong staining (3+) for ALK by IHC stains. One tumor was variant 1 and had moderate staining (2+) for ALK. None of the ALK wild type tumors had strong staining for ALK. When compared with other clinical and molecular features, only the IHC stain for ALK was significantly correlated with the EML4-ALK fusion gene (p = 0.0002).
Conclusions: ALK overexpression detected by IHC study could be a promising detection method for the EML4-ALK fusion gene and is worth further confirmation with more samples.
Background: Clozapine, an atypical antipsychotic drug, induces derangements in glucose homeostasis in certain patients. This study investigated the mechanisms of clozapine-induced beta-cell toxicity.
Methods: Fifty-two healthy C57BL/6 male mice were randomized into 4 groups to study the effects of clozapine (group C, D) and a high-fat diet (group B, D). Three mice from each group were randomly selected to determine the amount of food intake on days 8-10, and their pancreases were removed for
histological examination on day 11. The remaining 10 mice in each group were sacrificed at the 8th week to measure pancreatic insulin content (PIC).
Results: Mice given clozapine for 8 weeks demonstrated trends of lower PIC. The histological examination of the pancreases retrieved on day 11 already revealed apoptotic changes and suppression of cell proliferation. Although mice fed high-fat chow gained weight, mice given both clozapine and a highfat diet showed less weight gain and more severe histological deterioration, and had the lowest PIC levels of the 4 groups.
Conclusion: Pancreatic beta-cell apoptosis, suppression of cell proliferation, and trends of reduction in pancreatic insulin content were observed in mice taking clozapine. The findings of clozapine induced beta-cell toxicity were further aggravated when mice were concomitantly fed a high-fat diet.
Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of correlation between sexual dysfunction and depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and to identify the dimension most predictive of sexual dysfunction.
Methods: One-hundred and thirty-five outpatients with MDD were enrolled and were treated with open-label venlafaxine 75 mg daily for one month. The Arizona Sexual Experience Scale-Chinese Version (ASEX-CV), Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale (DSSS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were administered at baseline and at one-month follow -up and the improvement percentage (IP) of each scale posttreatment was calculated. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the dimension most predictive of the total ASEX-CV score.
Results: Seventy subjects (20 men, 50 women) completed the one-month pharmacotherapy and the four scales. The depression subscale of the HADS was most strongly correlated with the ASEX-CV scale and was the only subscale to independently predict the total ASEX-CV score at the two points. However, the somatic subscale of the DSSS was not correlated with any ASEX-CV item. At the endpoint, depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms were significantly improved (IP 48.5% to 26.0%); however, very little improvement was observed in the total ASEX-CV score (IP -1.6%).
Conclusion: The severity of sexual dysfunction among patients with MDD was most correlated with the severity of the depressive dimension, but not the severity of the somatic dimension. Further studies are indicated to explore the relationships between sexual dysfunction, depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms.
Background: Incorrect placement of pedicle screws may lead to neurovascular injury, so the position is important for the reduction of spinal fractures. CT-based image-guided surgery has been promoted as a means to theoretically improve the accuracy of pedicle screw placement. Patients who underwent CT-based navigation-assisted pedicle screw fixation for thoracic or lumbar fractures were reviewed to evaluate the accuracy of pedicle screw placement for spinal fracture cases.
Methods: A computed tomographic (CT)-based image-guided system (BrainLAB) was used for pedicle screw insertion in 14 patients with thoracic or lumbar spine fractures. The accuracy of pedicle screw placement was analyzed by the preoperative and postoperative Cobb's angle and sagittal screw angle with a review of radiographic images, and the penetration of the pedicle cortex by postoperative CT scans.
Results: Under the guidance of CT-based navigation 102 screws were inserted. Cobb's angle was corrected to an average of 15 degrees in the 14 patients. The sagittal screw angle was less than 10 degrees for 92 (90.2%) screws, and the overall average was 5 degrees. The results of the postoperative CT review showed only 3 (2.9%) screws penetrated the pedicle cortex laterally and no screw penetrated medially. No iagtrogenic neurological injury was found.
Conclusion: The accuracy of pedicle screw placement is crucial for thoracolumbar spine fracture fixation. The placement of pedicle screws can be done accurately with the aid of a CT-based image-guided system. Furthermore, this opens the possibility for surgeons to reduce radiation exposure by eliminating the need for intraoperative fluoroscopy.
Background: We report the outcomes of temporary vesicostomy- assisted anastomotic urethroplasty in patients with recurrent obliterated posterior urethral stricture.
Methods: A review of the medical records identified 12 men (mean age 35.8 years) who had undergone anastomotic urethroplasty for recurrent obliterated posterior stricture. Preoperative evaluation of the urethral defect included a simultaneous retrograde urethrogram and cystogram. The mean estimated preoperative radiographic length of the urethral disruption was 4.25 cm. All patients underwent 1-stage bulboprostatic anastomotic repair which was assisted by an intraoperative temporary vesicostomy.
Results: The initial objective success rate was 83%. The mean follow-up was 22 months. Voiding cystourethrography performed postoperatively demonstrated a wide, patent anastomosis in all but two cases. Urethroscopy performed 1 month after surgery revealed a patent anastomosis with normal urethral mucosa in all but two patients. The mean peak flow rate at the last follow-up visit was 16.3 ml/s. Two patients developed an anastomotic stricture 6 weeks after surgery that was successfully treated by direct visual internal urethrotomy. Finally, all patients had a patent urethra after salvage treatment postoperatively.
Conclusion: An open 1-stage temporary vesicostomy- assisted urethroplasty for recurrent obliterated posterior urethral stricture provides satisfactory outcomes and minimal morbidities.
Background: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement-augmented dynamic hip screws (DHS) have been used as a solution in unstable intertrochanteric fractures (ITF). Our aim was to investigate the complications in PMMA cement-augmented DHS.
Methods: All patients who had received DHS plate osteosynthesis with or without PMMA cement augmentation from August 2005 to July 2009 in one medical center were retrospectively reviewed. The fractures were classified as unstable (31-A2.2, 31-A2.3 and 31-A3) on the basis of the Arbeitsgemeinschaftfόr Osteosynthesefragen classification. Inclusion criteria were patients older than 75 years, unstable ITF treated with cement-augmented DHS, and a minimum of 12 months of follow-up. Exclusion criteria were stable ITFs, incomplete chart records and imaging studies, loss to follow-up or death before bone union.
Results: Three hundred twenty-one patients received DHS during the study period. Sixty-seven patients were included in the study (25 men and 42 women; mean age, 81.2 years). The mean follow-up time was 40.2 months, and the mean union time was 18.5 weeks (12-40 weeks). No patient had a lag screw cut-out. Six patients had delayed union or nonunion with side plate failures, including side plate breakage in 1 patient, screw breakage in 3, screw pullout in 1, and recurrent side plate breakage and screw breakage in 1. Deep infection occurred in 1 patient, and 1 had osteonecrosis at the femoral head. The procedure-related complication rate was 8.9%.
Conclusions: Cement-augmented DHS have a different failure mode than screw cutout in conventional DHS. Failures tended to be more related to delayed union, nonunion and resultant side plate construct failure.
Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare gastrointestinal disorder characterized by nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms, peripheral eosinophilia, and eosinophilic infiltration of the intestinal wall. The disorder is classified into mucosal, muscular, and subserosal types, depending on the depth of eosinophilic infiltration within the gastrointestinal wall, and the clinical picture varies accordingly. Subserosal disease, which is complicated by ascites, usually results in the most severe clinical form of eosinophilic gastroenteritis and mandates early corticosteroid therapy. In such cases, a favorable outcome can be achieved after a short course of corticosteroids. We present a rare case in a 43 year-old man in whom eosinophilic gastroenteritis spontaneously resolved without any medical treatment. After reviewing the literature and excluding secondary causes of eosinophilic gastroenteritis, we concluded that this may be the first reported case of spontaneous resolution of primary subserosal eosinophilic gastroenteritis.